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  • Cover TLIR The Lost Industrial Revolution
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TLIR The Lost Industrial Revolution

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Cort Johns • Boek • paperback

  • Samenvatting
    Critical Reviews

    The author has been extremely diligent in his pursuit of the research that establishes the veracity of his theories. This work comprehensively links earlier findings with the widely covered aspect of more recent history. Professor Johns has achieved his objective.
    Judith Heseltine, British Academic
    Richmond, England
    November 2018

    Professor Johns’ idea seems very enlightening that the organ could operate by steam. One can reach this conclusion according to the available illustrations, which document the massive substructural foundation (for firing a steam boiler).

    The pipes and its special lip formation also lead one to the conclusion that there must have been greater pressure on hand than originally assumed because the organ “could be heard from a few thousand feet away” according to Vossius.

    To prove and document that something like this, in a practical manner, is interesting and important, one can substantiate an unknown phenomenon, which has been neglected for centuries, and thus, corrects history from the beginning of the organ and organ playing.
    Siegfried Jud, Musical Instrument Maker
    Mels, Switzerland
    September 1991
  • Productinformatie
    Binding : Paperback
    Distributievorm : Boek (print, druk)
    Formaat : 210mm x 297mm
    Aantal pagina's : 486
    Uitgeverij : Cort Johns
    ISBN : 9789082865103
    Datum publicatie : 12-2018
  • Inhoudsopgave
    Table of Contents
    Preface............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
    Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................16
    Chapter I ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
    The Lost Industrial Revolution and its Renaissance
    Arnold Toynbee’s role in coining the phrase, “The Industrial Revolution”
    A Steam Calliope or Engine cannot be categorically disproven in Antiquity
    Kondratieff’s Long Wave Cycle tied to Birth of the Industrial Revolution
    Kondratieff’s Waves tied to Industrial Revolution and Waves of Music Composition
    The Missing Wave, Age of Mathematical Instruments, 1710/30s to 1760/80s
    Kondratieff’s First Cycle based on Commodity Price Indices
    Freeman’s Categorization of Kondratieff’s Long-Term Cycles
    Cesare Marchetti’s Pattern of Basic Innovations
    The Enlightenment and the (Latent) Industrial Revolution:
    The symbiosis of Rationality and Technology
    Chapter II .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................53
    Pythagoras Mathematical Cosmology and Ancient Technology
    The Dialectic of Greek and Babylonian Cultures
    The Spell of Archimedes
    Dormant Potential of Ancient Greek Technology
    Accidental Discoveries, Serendipity
    Hydraulis and its Historical Diffusion
    Music as Science for the Ancient Greeks
    Mathematical Basis of the Scale
    Role of Mystery or the Enigma effect in Greek Technology
    Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pipe Organs
    Ctesibius’ Hydraulis designed to function as a Calliope
    Chapter III .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................89
    The Theater of Machines: A Technological Chronology spanning Two Millenium from Ctesibius to Branca
    History of the Hydraulis from 250 B.C. to 1750
    Cylinder and Piston Design First applied in Pipe Organs
    The Bronze Metal, Roman Hydraulis of Aquincum
    Royal Patronage of Music conserved Musical Instruments and Scores
    History of Hydraulis Manuscripts (Codices)
    Ctesibius’ “Hypomenemata” and his other Lost Manuscripts
    Origins of Industrial Age: Ctesibius or Hero of Alexandria
    Hero of Alexandria’s Pneumatica
    The revival of Ancient Greek Mechanics
    Vitruvius Manuscript discovered in St. Gallen
    Greek Manuscripts in Nuremberg
    Renaissance Adoption of Applied Sciences
    Regiomontanus’ Sudden Death delays Italian Renaissance’s direct access to Nuremberg and its skilled Manufacturing Base
    Galileo’s Role in Merging Science and Technology
    The speed of Technological Transfer in the 16th Century
    Dutch Humanists and Scientists bring the Hydraulis back to Life
    Spinoff Technology from the Hydraulis
    The Hydraulis’ Mechanical Functioning Reassessed
    Chapter IV ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................132
    Hellenistic Greek and Roman reliance on Slave Labor
    Historian’s traditional Standpoint: Slavery negated demand for the Steam Engine
    Abolition of Slavery occurred in sync with the onset of the Hellenistic Period
    The Latent Industrial Revolution succeeded with the Abolition of Slavery in the United Kingdom
    Chapter V
    Hellenistic Period Manuscripts emerge from Hibernation
    Vitruvius and Hero’s Manuscripts resurface in the Renaissance Sicily: Translation Center for Arabic Manuscripts
    Pivotal Episode for the Latent Industrial Revolution:
    Poggio Bracciolini’s Manuscript Raid at the Abbey of St. Gallen
    Chapter VI ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................143
    Renaissance of Ctesibius’ and Hero’s Technology and Science
    Hero’s Pneumatic and Hydraulic Innovations with Air, Water, and Steam
    Ctesibius, not Hero of Alexandria, likely invented the Aeolipile
    Hero conducted research for Alternative Energy for Human Beings and Animals
    Feldhaus, Frotscher, and Perrot disagree with Pollux, Somerset, and Malmsbury: The Hydraulis never functioned with Boiling Water or Steam
    Steam Organs or Hydraulis observed in the Middle Ages
    Technical Prerequisites for an Industrial Revolution
    Chapter VII ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................169
    History of Mathematical Instruments
    Mathematical Instrument Technology First applied in Carillon Foundries
    Preservation of Organ Building Technology
    Columbus and the Scientific Revolution
    Earlier Industrial Renaissance in Bohemia
    Last Days of the Byzantine Empire
    The First Publication of “De Architectura”
    Vitruvius in 15th-Century Nuremberg and Central Europe
    Hellenistic Alexandria’s Theme Park inspired Hadrian’s Tivoli, and Cardinal Ippolito II’s Villa d’Este
    The Italian Renaissance and Villa d’Este
    Chapter VIII.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 212
    Leonardo da Vinci: Draws on the Hydraulis and Contributes to the Future
    Vitruvius’ Hydraulis found in Da Vinci’s Codex
    Da Vinci and Luco Pacioli
    Vitruvius’ Influence on Da Vinci, and Helmholtz
    Leonardo da Vinci’s Hydraulis-Inspired Organ Pipe Canon
    Da Vinci, Cardan, Porta, Branca, and de Caus, the Neo-Pneumaticists
    Giovanni Branca’s Forge, an Industrial adaptation of the Hydraulis
    Chapter IX .................................................................................................................................................................................................................251
    Solving the Hydraulis’ function by designing in Check Valves
    Hero’s Aeolipile, an Amusement Novelty, not a Steam Engine
    Johann Mathesius and the Joachimsthal Silver Mine Technology
    Barbaro, Commandini, Kircher, and Schott, searching for the Hydraulis
    Vitruvius and the Dutch Humanists
    Vitruvius’ Check Valves key to unlocking Hydraulis’ Enigma
    Perrault’s Analysis of Vitruvius at the Académie des Sciences in 1673
    Origins of Western Scientific Development
    Vitruvius and Hero’s Mechanical Innovations inspired Papin and Leibniz, to Change the World with the First Steam Engine Prototypes in post-Hellenistic Period Times
    Reber’s Secret Analysis of Vitruvius’ Hydraulis for Prussian Government
    Chapter X .................................................................................................................................................................................................................280
    Da Vinci and other Contemporaries turn to Steam for Experimentation
    Da Vinci’s Vacuum Experiments inspired the later Pneumaticists
    Taqī al-Dīn preceded Branca’s early Steam Turbine Experimentation
    Jerónimo de Ayanz and a short-lived Industrial Revolution in Spain
    Cornelis Drebbel and his Steam-Vacuum Experiment
    Von Güricke’s Revival of Ctesibius’ Pneumatic and Hydraulic Pumps
    Von Güricke’s Vacuum Experiments
    Hydraulis inspires Latent Industrial Revolution Musical Instruments
    Chapter XI ................................................................................................................................................................................................................292
    Papin and Leibniz’ Genius create the First Steam Engine Prototypes
    Vacuum Steam Mechanics versus Direct-Pressure and Siphons
    Search for Origins of the Papin/Leupold Direct-Pressure Systems
    Research conducted by Dr. Georg Volckamer
    Bach’s Familiarity with the Hydraulis
    Bach’s Presence in Cassel-Hessen to St. Joachimsthal from 1714 to 1720
    Bach’s Contributing Role in the Industrial Revolution
    Culture meets Technology in Leipzig’s Golden Age
    Frederick the Great and Saxony’s Role in Delaying the German Industrial Revolution
    H.W. Dickinson’s Analysis of Denis Papin and James Watt
    Joseph Needham’s Research
    Chapter XII .................................................................................................................................................................................................................317
    Papin and Leibniz exchange notes while inventing the Steam Engine
    Nuremberg’s Engineering School exposed Vitruvius and Hero to Students
    Contacts between Cassel and Leipzig: Leibniz, Bach, and Wolff (1712 to 1724)
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz’ Influence on Denis Papin
    Papin’s Claim for the Invention of the First Steam Engines
    Papin’s Direct Pressure Steam Engine Designs and Technology relate closely to Jakob Leupold’s Direct Pressure Steam Engine Designs in Leipzig
    Leibniz and Newton’s Interest in Pythagoras’ Musical and Mathematical Instruments
    Papin: A Case of Mysterious Disappearance
    Chapter XIII.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 338
    Reasons to support that Ctesibius adapted his Hydraulis as a Steam Engine
    Ctesibius’ Hydraulis not credited as a precursor of the Steam Engine
    Moncony witnesses Pressurized Fire Extinguisher in Antwerp in 1663
    Leibniz parlays a Johann Hautsch Fire Engine for entry to the Académie des Sciences in Paris
    Ctesibius and Hero of Alexandria inspired Hautsch to build his High-Pressure Fire Extinguisher
    Five-Fold Operating Capability of Hydraulis
    Swiss Expert’s Confirmation of Hydraulis Steam Operating Potential
    Chapter XIV ................................................................................................................................................................................................................358
    James Watt begins Career building Pipe Organs
    James Watt draws on Music Theory to first Construct Pipe Organs
    Ctesibius and Watt: Kindred Engineering Geniuses, Two Millennia Apart
    Watt recreated Ctesibius’ Invention
    Watt learned German to read Leupold’s “Theatrum Machinarium”
    Watt’s 1769 Patent Direct-Pressure Steam Engine Progress
    Evans’ Patent Application: First for Direct-Pressure Steam Engine
    Chapter XV ................................................................................................................................................................................................................374
    Origins of the Industrial Era
    Hanoverian-English Monarchy and the Continental Technological Transfer Network
    Leibniz’s Database/Network for the Latent Industrial Revolution
    Johann Mattheson’s Contacts with the British Privy Council
    George Ist established Freemasonry in England
    James Watt: Organ Builder, Instrument Maker, and Free Mason
    University of Glasgow’s Missing Library and the Royal Society of London’s Missing Documents
    Dueling Flautists: Musical Competition of the Prussian and British Monarchies
    Toynbee’s (Latent) Industrial Revolution
    Thorsten Veblen and the Industrial Revolution
    Japan’s Classical Music Tradition
    Chapter XVI ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................396
    Summary and Conclusion .
    About the Author’s Professional Academic Musicians Family
    Malcolm MacLean Johns. Mus.D., h.c. Wayne State University and the University of Detroit by the Order of Ignatius Loyola
    Thor Martin Johnson
    Marian Johnson Johns, B.Mus.
    Christopher Kabala, M. Mus. .
    About the Author
    “The Lost Industrial Revolution”, Mechanical and Mathematical Claims and Observations
    R.E. Hamann, B.S.M.E
    Siegfried Jud, Swiss Mathematical Instrument Maker
    Bibliography
    List of Exhibits
    Summary of Appendices, A to F
    Appendix A: Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (Naturalis historia)
    Appendix B: List, Date and Location of Da Vinci’s 10 known Codices
    Appendix C: Giambattista della Porta “I tre libri de spiritali”
    Appendix: D “Die Geschichte der Bibliothek St. Gallen seit ihrer Gründung um das Jahr 830 bis auf 1841”
    Appendix E: “Architecture Hydraulique, ou L’Art de Conduire, D’Elever, et de Meanger, Les Eaux pour les différends Besoins de la Vie”
    Appendix F: Rebuttal to Kitsikopoulos’ Broad Claim to First Priority
    Index
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Fragment

Introduction
Arnold Toynbee’s Lectures, published in 1884, set forth the thesis that a British Industrial Revolution occurred in 1776. The academic world has often accepted this date, plus or minus ten or so years, with few reservations concerning the premises that support Toynbee’s concept. Underlying much of what Toynbee writes about James Watt and his steam engine lays a sophisticated argument concerning a technical development that has kept most mechanical engineers and scholars of the history of technology at bay since further analysis requires research into the musical history and science and the literary history of ancient manuscripts.

To paraphrase Toynbee’s argument:

1) Steam power brought on the Industrial Revolution, i.e. the ability of machinery to convert heat energy to mechanical energy efficiently using an apparatus known as a steam engine, qua prime mover, which consists of a boiler, various valves and connecting rods, a steam chamber, and separate condenser.
2) The Industrial Revolution, according to this concept, could not have taken place until someone invented these steam engine components ready for assembly.
3) The separate condenser was the last, and most critical, element invented; therefore, the time of its invention and implementation with the other sub-assemblies of the steam engine determined the onset date of the Industrial Revolution.
4) James Watt set the date of the first steam engine incorporating a separate condenser in 1776.
5) Because the development of the separate condenser occurred less than twelve years after Watt first envisioned the separate condenser idea, which was in 1765, it was fair to conclude that the process took place suddenly as a radical or revolutionary innovation. Watt’s vacuum or atmospheric type steam engine represented a radical shift in the capability of industrial machinery to perform work more efficiently. The virtually simultaneous economic expansion, which took place after 1776, led Toynbee to conclude that indeed an Industrial Revolution resulted from this sequence of events, Watt’s invention, and rapid economic development.


There is a thread of logic binding Arnold Toynbee’s entire thesis for his concept of an Industrial Revolution together with prior scientific experimentation and the parallel development of economic expansion in the late 18th century. Toynbee’s theory, as summarized above, provides a crisp and succinct answer to one of the most complex sets of events within the human experience: man’s ability to create a substitute for human and animal energy through the harnessing of heat energy through his technology. However, Toynbee narrowly defines his concept to events taking place in Scotland and England, largely, if not exclusively, ignoring significant, related steam mechanic predecessors going back to Antiquity.

By combining and commingling the history of both the direct-pressure and vacuum pump types of steam machinery, Toynbee, and his interpreters developed a hybrid theory of steam power development. This theory, historians of technology assimilated rapidly, perhaps, applying “Occam’s Razor” because of its simplicity; they apparently did not examine it with extensive research to validate how the complex industrial developments on the European continent could further verify or refute its claims. Formative industrial events recorded before 1714 and after the ascendancy of King George I (1660-1727) to the throne of England from Hanover conflict with Toynbee’s analysis.

The central thesis of this book is the argument that the Industrial Revolution started earlier than the 1780s and required predating back to 1714. The removal of the artificial chronological constraint from 1604 to 1654 counter-intuitively allows for a longer period of pre-industrialized technological and economic development to take place. With the distorted vacuum arguments put aside, the history of the Hydraulis allows for the precursors of the steam engine to return to their rightful chronological position in the history of technology. The fellows of the Nuremberg Academy witnessed the steam engine’s evolution between 1682 and 1730. By discounting earlier vacuum experiments, but including Papin and Leupold’s direct-pressure steam engine designs in the longitudinal sequence leading up to the Industrial Revolution, they discovered an alternative view for the understanding of the steam engine’s mechanical evolution.


Chapter I
The Lost Industrial Revolution and its Renaissance
Arnold Toynbee’s role in coining the phrase, “The Industrial Revolution”
Does history now, or ever before, support Toynbee’s assessment of an Industrial Revolution? Can a better-documented analysis provide a superior claim for it rather being the result of a longer series of evolving technical, economic, cultural and political transformations and intertwining events that shifted the center of overall human activities from an agricultural to a predominately, industrial base in the West?

In labeling this transformation, as Toynbee did in naming it “The” Industrial Revolution, do not historians of technology now need to reassess that conclusion within a wider spectrum of evolutionary changes taking place in the 17th and 18th centuries? Not taking up the challenge to review and suggest modifications to Toynbee’s thesis, by demonstrating that contra underlying arguments, as expressed in the outline above, that subjecting Toynbee’s nomenclature would allow it to remain an open issue subject to eventual logical refutation.

Historians should consider arguing that Denis Papin’s historical precedent of the first direct-pressure steam engine of 1707 and later Oliver Evans’ U.S. patent application in 1786 technically made obsolete the often cited, historical significance of James Watt’s separate condenser innovation. These two physically superior systems render redundant Watt’s vacuum or atmospherically functioning steam engine through their achievement of superior functioning, direct-pressure steam systems.

Papin’s and Evans’ technology called for the application of direct, expanding steam into the power cylinder chamber, to move its internal piston in an upward or outward direction from the part of the cylinder from the source of the steam. However, the basic structural designs of such an engine preceded their achievements by two millennia.

That the commonly termed “Industrial Revolution” bears that name is due to the misperception of its short time for development. To demonstrate, we will delve back into the history of technology to explain our revisionist claim. The popular understanding of the Industrial Revolution relates to James Watt’s vacuum steam engines innovations used as the basis for the beginning of this period. However, its origins date back considerably further in time. We will provide a different account of its origins that takes us to the 3rd-century B.C. when Ctesibius of Alexandria invented the Hydraulis and conducted siphon experiments that advanced steam mechanics further with a broad array of devices created by Hero of Alexandria (10-70 A.D.) .

The steam engine’s origin predates even the days of the Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar, (63 B.C.–14 A.D.) His chief engineer and architect, Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (1st century B.C.) wrote: “De architectura” also known as “The Ten Books of Architecture” that he dedicated to Augustus Caesar (Exhibit 3) providing a complete summary of Greek and Roman architectural and mechanical achievements for surviving from Antiquity.


Exhibit 3: Image of Vitruvius presenting "D’architectura" to Augustus Caesar
Hero’s Pneumatica carried much of his text down from Philo of Byzantium (Philōn ho Byzantios or Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC). In a like manner as Philo before him, he repeated much of what Ctesibius had written in his “Hypomenemata” and “Memorabilia” and possibly other of his writings that are no longer extant.

Ctesibius (Ktesibios or Κτησίβιος) invented the Hydraulis and was a leading member, if not the director, of the Engineering School of Alexandria during the time of Ptolemaîos Philádelphos (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, 309–246 B.C., who reigned from 283 to 246 B.C.).

The Hydraulis embodied and reified the technical realization of the Pythagorean theory of “the harmony of numbers” and his experimentation with the vibrating frequencies of stringed instruments. Compressors, reciprocating piston pumps, check valves, instrument keyboards, organ pipes, and cylinder engines have evolved from his designs of the Hydraulis and pneumatic and hydraulic pumps.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Roman architect and engineer (1st century B.C., Exhibit 4) preserved Ctesibius’ Hydraulis design through its partially detailed description in his “De architectura.” Hero’s description and graphics found in his “Pneumatica” supported continued construction of the instrument in the Byzantine Empire.


Exhibit 5: Ctesibius and his family likely sailed from the Antikyra to Alexandria
Thus, Ctesibius’ family immigrated early in his life to Alexandria. (Exhibit 5) This move from a small Greek town or village to the city founded and named after Alexander the Great provided the young Ctesibius with the potential to explore the most advanced scientific and technological environment available at the heart of the Ancient World. Archimedes, who was born and died in Syracuse, did not have this opportunity at the place and time of his birth. Ctesibius was able to find artisans to fabricate devices that were unrivaled until the beginning of the 16th century. Although historians know that Archimedes studied in Alexandria, it would likely require at least a week by sea and almost two months by land after crossing by ferry from Syracuse to Carthage and proceeding the rest of the distance on land (Exhibit 6).


Exhibit 6: Archimedes' Land route to Alexandria
Therefore, Ctesibius should remain high on the list of ancient Greek inventors, along with Archimedes and Posidonios, capable of having designed and supervised the fabrication of the Antikythera Mechanism that archaeologists still have not firmly established. No one speaks higher of Ctesibius’ importance in the history of science and technology than Thomas W. Eubanks:

Ctesibius of Alexandria [was] one of the most eminent mathematicians and mechanicians of antiquity—one, whose claims upon our esteem, are not surpassed by those of any other individual, ancient or modern.

The simple, the trivial sound produced by the descent of the weight in his father’s [barber] shop, was to him, what the fall of the apple was to Newton, and the vibration of the lamp or chandelier in the church at Pisa, to Galileo, and may add their names to those of Ctesibius and Franklin.

British authorities might have suspected that steam power could have potential military applications, since few understood the limits of steam pressure at that time, and therefore possibly taken it as a potential military threat and kept under wraps until they better understood the extent of the exponentially expanding character of steam power.

The secret power of Archimedes’ Steam Canon alone could justifiably be one reason for their concern, not unlike the fear of nuclear proliferation by scientists privy to the knowledge of the Manhattan Project for being capable of building another atomic bomb for the Soviet Union.

M.I.T., after years of speculation, tested the potential power of the Leonardo’s Steam Canon that he had erroneously attributed to Archimedes. They discovered that “High-speed camera footage showed that the muzzle velocity was over 300 m/s (1078 kmh or 670 mph)! Historians cannot say that if Archimedes did it, but this small-scale test illustrates a simple, powerful steam cannon could probably have been made using the technology of his era.” Modern aircraft carriers use the same steam principle found in Archimedes’ Steam Canon to launch aircraft swiftly from their decks. ×
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