This book discusses interaction between infrastructure development and regional planning, using Indonesia as a case study. It also highlights a number of theories and practices of the regional development planning process and its implementation, particularly in the context of developing countries. Designing holistic regional development requires a cross- and multi-sector planning process. In contrast, the sector-based development planning process only concentrates on a particular issue or problem and tends to ignore the needs of other sectors. Therefore, overlapping projects often take place, especially when the project is large in scope. In extreme situations, sector-based development may trigger conflict because each sector demands to be the priority. Without policy coordination, contra-productive situations can emerge from this conflict of interests. Adopting an infrastructure sector-based approach within a regional development framework will ensure that the planning, implementation, operation and maintenance of projects is effective, efficient and sustainable.