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Music Theory: The Language of Sound – in colour

KarrArikh Tor • Boek • hardback

  • Samenvatting
    Tired of fighting with your fellow band members because you don't understand each other's instruments? Music Theory: the Language of Sound demystifies guitar and bass in a straightforward, easy to read manner. Writer KarrArikh Tor explains: “Music theory is a common musical language for Western music traditions that musicians use to communicate musical ideas between instruments. In most cases, music theory is written from the piano, because it is easier to see chords and understand which notes are sharp or flat. Unfortunately, a guitarist or bassist can do little with this information, because they have no black and white keys and do not see chords in the same manner.” The graphics in Music Theory: the Language of Sound tie the fretboards of the guitar and bass guitar to the keyboard and staves, making it a valuable tool not just for guitarists and bassists but for every member in a band. Learn how to easily find 'boxes' on the fretboard and play leads like a professional. Find out how to take your musical ideas and write it them onto paper so anyone can play along. See the patterns on the fretboards and learn the positions to play scales in any Key. Head out to the associated video channel and hear variations played while you read along with the sheet music.
    Chapter One explains the basic theory behind Western Musical Traditions, treating music theory like a language [Introduced in this chapter are: Octave divisions, Whole steps, Halfsteps, Accidentals, Clefs, Grand staff, Treble staff, Bass staff, Alto staff, Tenor staff, Time signature, Note types, Rests, Tempo]. Chapter Two shows where the natural notes on a piano are located on the guitar and bass guitar fretboards and on the Grand Staff [Introduced in this chapter are: Standard tuning, Tablature]. Chapter Three examines scales, particularly the Major Key scale, showing how we develop our scales from a tonic note, and where to find Major scales on the fretboards of guitars and bass guitars [Introduced in this chapter are: Ascending scale, Descending scale, Chromatic scale, Tonic note, Tonic scale names, Diatonic scales, Enharmonic Notes and Keys, Scale degrees, 15 Major Keys, Intervals]. Chapter Four defines chords, showing all the chords that can be built from a root note [Introduced in this chapter are: Chords, Note stacks, Triad chords (including Major, minor, diminished and augmented chords), Chord Qualities, Chord Inversions, Seventh chords (including Dominant, Major, minor-Major, minor, augmented, diminished, and half-diminished seventh chords), Suspended chords, Added note chords, Extended chords (including Ninth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth chords)]. Chapter Five continues from chapter four, defining and building chords naturally found in a Major Key scale [Introduced in this chapter are: Chords built from scale degrees (including all Major, minor, diminished, suspended, added note, and extended chords occurring naturally in a Major Key), Bar Chords for both guitar and bass guitar, Power Chords, how to use bar chords]. Chapter Six examines how to use the 15 Key Signatures and how modes are built from the Major Key scale [Included in this chapter are: 15 Major Keys, Key Signatures, Circle of Fifths, Circle of Fourths, Modes, Ionian mode, Dorian mode, Phrygian mode, Lydian mode, Mixolydian mode, Aeolian mode, Locrian mode, Natural minor Key, Harmonic minor Key, Melodic minor Key]. Chapter Seven examines additional notations that can be used on staves or in tablature [Introduced in this chapter are: Dynamic symbols (including Forte, Piano, Crescendo, Diminuendo, Fermata, Marcato, Sforzato, Tenuto, Portato, and Staccato), Octave shifts (using 8va, 8vb, 15ma, 15mb, 22ma, 22mb), Grace notes (Acciaccatura, and Appoggiatura), Tied notes, Slurs, Repeat measure symbol, Barlines, Brackets, Braces, Prima Volta, Seconda Volta, D.C. (Da Capo), D.S. (Dal Segno), Fine, Coda, Segno]. Chapter Eight examines adding chord arrangements to a melody, transposing songs, and working with modes in a chord arrangement. Chapter Nine examines naming chords, choosing between enharmonic chord names, and naming a group of notes as a chord. This book has it all, and will no doubt become the standard for guitarists, bassists, and band members everywhere.
  • Productinformatie
    Binding : Hardback
    Distributievorm : Boek (print, druk)
    Formaat : 170mm x 240mm
    Aantal pagina's : 270
    Uitgeverij : KarrArikh Tor
    ISBN : 9789082853674
    Datum publicatie : 04-2023
  • Inhoudsopgave
    Table of Contents
    Chapter One
    Why do we need Music Theory? 1
    Beginning with the language 2
    Dividing the Octave 6
    Writing the language onto paper 9
    Treble Staff/Bass Staff 12
    Alto/Tenor Staff 14
    How do we measure Time on a Staff 15
    When to use the Grand Staff 27

    Chapter Two
    Working with String Instruments and Tablature 29
    Notes found on a standard tuned Guitar 31
    Notes found on a standard tuned Bass Guitar 34
    What is Tablature? 37

    Chapter Three
    What is a Scale? 45
    Whole-Whole-half-Whole-Whole-Whole-half 47
    Positions to play the C Major scale 53
    Pattern 1 55
    Pattern 2 56
    Pattern 3 57
    Pattern 4 58
    Pattern 5 59
    Looking at Intervals & the Major Key Scale 62

    Chapter Four
    What is a Chord? 70
    Inversions of C Major 74
    Chords built from the Root 75
    Triad Chords
    The Major chord 75
    The minor chord 77
    The diminished chord 78
    The augmented chord 79
    Seventh Chords 81
    Suspended Chords 86
    Add Chords 87
    Extended Chords 89
    Ninth Chords 89
    Eleventh Chords 91
    Thirteenth Chords 93
    Enharmonic Chords 93
    Chapter Five
    Chords built from our Major Key scale 96
    Chords occurring in the Key of C Major 99
    Triad chords in the Key of C Major 100
    Seventh chords in the Key of C Major 101
    Suspended chords in the Key of C Major 102
    Added chords in the Key of C Major 103
    Extended chords in the Key of C Major 104
    Finding Chords on Guitar and Bass fretboards 106
    Chords for the Guitar 106
    Bar chord Form I 108
    Bar chord Form II 109
    Chord Form III 111
    Power Chords 113
    Chords for the Bass Guitar 114
    Bass chord Form I 115
    Bass chord Form II 116
    Bass chord Form III 117
    Extended Chords 118
    Chord chart 121
    Using Chord Forms 124

    Chapter Six
    Using Key Signatures 133
    Sharp Major Keys 135
    Flat Major Keys 137
    Circle of Fifths/Circle of Fourths 139
    Modes of the Major scale 141
    Modified minor Keys (Harmonic & Melodic minor) 147

    Chapter Seven
    Additional Notations for our Staff 151
    Staff volumes – Forte, Mezzo-forte, Piano,
    Mezzo-piano 152
    Crescendos and Diminuendos 153
    Fermata, Sforzato, Staccato, Tenuto, Portato,
    Marcato 154
    Octave shifts using 8va, 8vb, 15ma, 15mb,
    22ma, 22mb 155
    Grace notes – Acciaccatura, Appoggiatura 157
    Tied notes and Slurs 158
    Repeat measure symbol 159
    Barlines, Brackets, Braces 159
    Prima Volta, Seconda Volta 161
    D.C. (Da Capo), D.S. (Dal Segno), Fine, Coda,
    Segno 162
    Additional Notations for Tablature 166

    Chapter Eight
    Adding chord arrangements to a melody 169
    I-IV-V7 chord progression in C Major 169
    Adding Bass… 171
    Adding other instruments… 172
    Transposing songs from one Key to another 175
    Running through Modes with Guitars 180
    Twinkle Twinkle Little Star
    Variations in G Major 187

    Chapter Nine
    Naming Groups of Notes as Chords 194
    Examples of naming note groupings into chords 196
    Chord One 196
    Chord Two 197
    Chord Three 199
    Chord Four 199
    Chords Five/Six/Seven 201

    Appendices 212
    Appendix One - Open chords for guitar
    A, A7, Am, Am7, Asus2, C 213
    CM7, D, D7, Dm, Dsus4, E, E7, Em, Em7, G, G7 214

    Appendix Two - Tempo Chart for setting effects
    60 bpm – 76 bpm 215
    78 bpm – 130 bpm 216
    132 bpm – 184 bpm 217

    Appendix Three - Chords in the Key of…
    How to read/use Appendix Three 218
    Major Key index 219
    15 Major Keys with chord listings 220
    chord index 250
    Triad chords, Seventh chords,
    Suspended chords 250
    Extended chords: Ninth, Eleventh,
    Thirteenth chords 255

    Bibliography / Acknowledgements 259
    Index 260
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Chapter Four

What is a Chord?
Whenever we play 2 or more notes at the same time, we create a harmony of tones which we call a chord. Chords can express many qualities of sound. Some chords sound hollow creating a feeling of emptiness and space, some sound full and almost solid in their harmony. Some chords sound happier than others, some sound sad. Some hang in the air with anticipation, waiting for a resolution. Some have a dissonance in their sound, creating an anxious or tense feeling. When performing in a group, a single member can play a chord by themself, or the chord can be created by the combination of several members each playing different notes on separate instruments.

Any two-note combination is called an interval. Three-note combinations are called Triad chords. The three notes in a triad chord sit on top of each other, being stacked on the staff. The most common triad chords used in Western Traditional Music are built by stacking 2 intervals, giving us our three notes. The Major third and minor third intervals are the two intervals used (in our stacks) to create our common triad chords. By adding more intervals to our Triad chords, we can produce our 4, 5, 6, and 7 note chords, which are called Seventh chords, Added chords, and Extended chords.

minor second Major second minor third Major third Perfect fourth Tritone
Perfect fifth minor sixth Major sixth minor seventh Major seventh Unison

We studied Intervals in Chapter Three. These are the foundation of chords with 3 or more notes in them. Triad chords may only use the Major and minor third intervals, but other intervals are needed when we extend our triad chords into Sevenths and beyond. First, we will study the triad chord. Using the Major and minor third intervals we can create four types of triads: the Major triad, the minor triad, the diminished triad, and the augmented triad.

Stacking a minor third interval over a Major third interval creates a Major chord. Stacking a Major third interval over a minor third interval creates a minor chord. Stacking two minor third intervals creates a diminished chord and stacking two Major third intervals creates an augmented chord. These are the four basic types of triad chords with which we begin. The suspended 2nd chord and the suspended 4th chord are also three-note chords, but their notes are not stacked like our basic triad chords. We will get back to suspended chords later in this chapter. To discuss our chord possibilities fully, we need to understand how we number our chords. We number two consecutive octaves beginning with our tonic note.

Root 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th

Numbers used to name the notes in a chord come from counting two octaves in a row. The 2nd and 9th notes are the same note (shown in different octaves on the staff). So are the 4th and 11th notes, and the 6th and 13th notes. This is important to remember in understanding chord notation.

We called the first note in our Major scale the tonic note. Like the Major scale, a chord is also built from a single note. We call the first note in our chord the “Root” of the chord. Looking at scales and chords can get confusing. Here is where we can no longer use a number placed next to our letter to represent the octave that the note appears in. The Grand Staff will have to be used to represent the octave of a note. A chord is named by a letter which is sometimes followed by a number. The number of a chord should be written in superscript font, as in the notation C7. When there is no superscript available, normal font size numbers can be used, using a C7 instead of the C7. This looks like an octave number from Chapter One, which is why the octave number of a note needs to be represented by use of a staff with a clef stating the octave. ×