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Vacuum Science and Technology

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Bert Suurmeijer, Theo Mulder, Jan Verhoeven • ebook • pdf

  • Samenvatting
    'Vacuum Science and Technology' (VST) is a fully new international edition of the Dutch standard work 'Basisboek Vacuümtechniek', first published in 2000 by the Dutch Vacuum Society NEVAC and since a real “bestseller” in the Dutch-speaking area. In the English edition the authors have included all currently relevant knowledge for everybody who works in vacuum-related research, instrumentation, development, production or business. 20 years use of the Dutch version in numerous vacuum courses have proven the book not only to be an excellent reference work but as well an outstanding textbook because of its unique "two books in one" format, perfectly suited for self-study and (combined) high and medium level trainings. After release of the hardcover version early 2016 an eBook version (.pdf) has been presented mid 2017. Easy installable on smartphone, tablet, laptop or PC and thus always and everywhere having a source of information about vacuum topics at hand. Additional advantage above an offset hardcover release: updates are comparatively easy to perform. Not surprisingly therefore the eBook version has meanwhile been supplemented or changed on some welcome points, such as f.i. the inclusion of all fully worked solutions to the chapter exercises to further enhance the book's quality as an excellent manual for courses and self-study!
    For more information please visit our website https://www.book-vacuum-science-and-technology.com. From time to time we offer attractive discounts on the regular eBook price, specifically targeting user categories such as for instance members of national vacuum societies, students, course participants, startups and so on.
  • Productinformatie
    Binding : PDF
    Auteur : Bert Suurmeijer, Theo Mulder, Jan Verhoeven
    Bestandstype : PDF
    Distributievorm : Ebook (digitaal)
    Aantal pagina's : Afhankelijk van e-reader
    Beveiliging : Geen   Informatie 
    Uitgeverij : sumuver (suurmeijer-mulder-verhoeven)
    ISBN : 9789082947724
    Datum publicatie : 03-2021
  • Inhoudsopgave
    Chapter 1 Basic concepts 1
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Historical overview 2
    1.3 Molecules and atoms 5
    1.4 Physical states of matter 8
    1.5 Kinetic theory of gases 9
    1.6 Molecular velocities and energie 10
    1.7 Pressure of a gas 16
    1.8 Ideal gas law 20
    1.9 Dalton's law 21
    1.10 Avogadro’s law; equation of state for an ideal gas 21
    1.11 Van der Waals equation of state 23
    1.12 Mean free path 25
    1.13 Rate of incidence of gas particles on a surface 30
    1.14 Energy flow to a wall 32
    1.15 Vapour pressure; rate of evaporation 34
    1.16 Transport phenomena in gases 36
    1.17 Transport of a physical quantity G in a viscous gas 37
    1.18 Viscosity 40
    1.18.1 Viscosity in a dense gas (Kn « 1) 40
    1.18.2 Viscosity in a rarefied gas (Kn » 1) 42
    1.19 Thermal transpiration (thermo-molecular flow) 45
    1.20 Thermal conductivity 46
    1.20.1 Thermal conductivity at high pressures (Kn « 1) 46
    1.20.2 Thermal conductivity at low pressures (Kn » 1) 50
    1.21 Diffusion of gases 54
    1.21.1 Fick’s diffusion laws 54
    1.21.2 Self-diffusion 55
    1.21.3 Diffusion in gas mixtures 57
    Exercises 61

    Chapter 2 Gas-solid interaction 63
    2.1 Introduction 63
    2.2 Physical adsorption 63
    2.3 Why no mirror reflection at a solid surface? 65
    2.4 Lennard-Jones potential 67
    2.5 Rate of adsorption 71
    2.6 Residence time 71
    2.7 Rate of desorption 73
    2.8 Adsorption-desorption equilibrium 75
    2.9 Adsorption isotherms 76
    2.9.1 Monolayer (Langmuir) adsorption 76
    2.9.2 Multilayer (BET) adsorption 78
    2.10 Surface migration; mobile versus localized adsorption 81
    2.11 Porous materials; persorption 82
    2.12 Chemisorption 85
    2.13 Condensation 89
    2.14 Absorption, diffusion and permeation 90
    2.15 Outgassing 97
    Exercises 98

    Chapter 3 Flow of gases through tubes and orifices 101
    3.1 Introduction 101
    3.2 Thermodynamic laws 104
    3.2.1 First law of thermodynamics 104
    3.2.2 Second law of thermodynamics; isentropic process 107
    3.2.3 Equation of state 107
    3.3 Overview of flow laws 109
    3.3.1 Continuity equation 109
    3.3.2 Bernoulli’s law 111
    3.3.3 Conservation of momentum 115
    3.4 Supersonic flow through a nozzle or aperture 116
    3.5 The shock wave 123
    3.6 Laminar flow 129
    3.7 'Choked' gas flow in a tube 133
    3.8 Molecular flow 134
    3.8.1 Molecular flow through an orfice 135
    3.8.2 Molecular flow in a (cylindrical) tube 136
    3.9 Definition of the concept of ‘conductance 139
    3.10 Conductance in case of a supersonic flow 140
    3.11 Conductance in case of a laminar flow 141
    3.12 Conductance in the case of a choked flow 144
    3.13 Conductance in case of a molecular flow 144
    3.14 Conductance in the transition domain between viscous and molecular flow 152
    3.15 Conductance of complex vacuum components 153
    3.16 Pumping speed 153
    3.17 Calculation examples in a simple vacuum system 155
    Exercises 157

    Chapter 4 Vacuum pumps and pumping systems 160
    4.1 Introduction 160
    4.2 Definitions 163
    4.3 Compression processes in transfer pumps 166
    4.4 Liquid-sealed rotary pumps 168
    4.4.1 Liquid ring pump 168
    4.4.2 Rotary-vane pump 175
    4.4.3 Gas ballast 181
    4.4.4 Oil-sealed multivane pump 189
    4.4.5 Rotary-piston pump 190
    4.4.6 Oil-sealed rotary pumps in practice; pump accessories 193
    4.5 Liquid jet pump 198
    4.6 Vapour-stream pumps 199
    4.6.1 Steam jet pump 208
    4.6.2 Diffusion pump 211
    4.6.3 Pump fluids 223
    4.6.4 Diffusion pump system operation 225
    4.6.5 Hints and safety measures for diffusion pump systems 228
    4.6.6 Vapour booster pump 229
    4.7 Oscillation pumps 230
    4.7.1 Piston pump 231
    4.7.2 Diaphragm pump 233
    4.8 Dry rotary pumps 235
    4.8.1 Side channel blower 235
    4.8.2 Oil-free multivane pump 239
    4.8.3 Scroll pump 240
    4.8.4 Roots pump 243
    4.8.5 Claw Pump 260
    4.8.6 Screw pump 268
    4.9 Molecular pumps 270
    4.9.1 Molecular dragpump (MDP) 272
    4.9.2 MDP/side channel pump 280
    4.9.3 Turbomolecular pump (TMP) 285
    4.9.4 Design and engineering aspects of turbomolecular pumps 293
    4.9.5 Turbomolecular pump system operation 301
    4.9.6 Hybrid molecular pump (HMP) 303
    4.10 Capture pumps 307
    4.10.1 Sorption pump 308
    4.10.2 Getter pump 318
    4.10.3 Sputter-ion pump 325
    4.10.4 Cryopump 335
    4.10.5 Cryopump system operation 348
    4.11 Pump selection 351
    4.11.1 Quantity of gas (throughput) Q to be pumped 351
    4.11.2 Desired operating pressure p 352
    4.11.3 Required pumping speed S 353
    4.11.4 Economic aspects 353
    4.11.5 Pumping aggressive, toxic or explosive gases and vapours 354
    4.11.6 Pumping large amounts of gas 356
    4.11.7 Obtaining ultra-high vacuum 358
    Exercises 359

    Chapter 5 Pressure measurement 367
    5.1 Introduction 367
    5.2 Absolute gauges 370
    5.2.1 U-tube manometer 370
    5.2.2 McLeod manometer 373
    5.2.3 Knudsen gauge 377
    5.3 Mechanical (aneroid) gauges 384
    5.3.1 Bourdon gauge 385
    5.3.2 Capsule dial gauge 387
    5.3.3 Diaphragm vacuum gauge 388
    5.3.4 Piezoresistive pressure gauge 389
    5.3.5 Capacitance gauge 392
    5.4 Viscosity gauges 396
    5.4.1 Spinning rotor gauge 396
    5.4.2 Quartz crystal friction gauge 401
    5.5 Heat conductivity gauges 404
    5.5.1 Principle and operation 404
    5.5.2 Configurations and measuring methods 411
    5.6 Hot cathode ionization gauges 416
    5.6.1 Principle and operation 416
    5.6.2 Properties 424
    5.6.3 Configurations 431
    5.7 Cold cathode ionization gauges 439
    5.7.1 Principle and operation 439
    5.7.2 Properties 444
    5.7.3 Configurations 446
    Exercises 449

    Chapter 6 Partial pressure gauges and residual gas analysis 453
    6.1 Introduction 453
    6.2 The ion source 455
    6.3 The mass analyzer section; resolution 461
    6.4 180° magnetic deflection mass spectrometer 466
    6.5 Quadrupole mass spectrometer 473
    6.6 Autoresonant trap mass spectrometer 481
    6.7 The ion collector; electron multipliers 487
    6.8 Interpretation of residual gas spectra 491
    6.9 Spectrum analysis 495
    6.10 Spectra of vacuum systems 499
    Exercises 504

    Chapter 7 Measurements of pump properties 507
    7.1 Introduction 507
    7.2 Measurement of ultimate pressure 507
    7.3 Pumping speed measuring procedures 509
    7.3.1 Constant volume method 509
    7.3.2 Constant pressure method 512
    7.4 Pumping speed measurement on a high vacuum pump 516
    7.5 Measurement of the pump’s compression ratio 518
    Exercises 519

    Chapter 8 Leak detection 521
    8.1 Introduction 521
    8.2 Conceptual considerations; leak rate 522
    8.3 Leak detection methods 524
    8.3.1 Pressurizing (inside-out) methods 525
    8.3.2 Reduced pressure (outside-in) methods 527
    8.3.3 Atmosphere method versus bombing 530
    8.4 The use of helium as a tracer gas 533
    8.5 Reviewing the symptoms; troubleshooting 536
    8.6 Leak testing and leak finding 538
    8.7 Helium leak detectors 539
    8.7.1 The mass spectrometer 539
    8.7.2 The pumping system 541
    8.7.3 Response time 544
    8.7.4 Sensitivity 547
    8.7.5 Reference leak 549
    8.8 Leak detection by vacuum gauge or RGA 550
    8.9 Inside-out sniffing systems 553
    8.9.1 Helium sniffer 553
    8.9.2 Hydrogen leak detector 554
    8.9.3 Quartz window sensor 556
    8.9.4 Halogen leak detector 557
    8.9.5 Multigas sniffing systems 559
    8.10 Leak detection of (ultra-)high vacuum systems 560
    8.11 Directives for leak testing and the prevention of leaks 570
    Exercises 571

    Chapter 9 Sealing techniques and system components 576
    9.1 Introduction 576
    9.2 Demountable joints 576
    9.2.1 Grooved flanges with elastomer sealing 577
    9.2.2 The Pneurop standard flange system 581
    9.2.3 Metal seals 582
    9.2.4 Flange constructions for metal sealing 582
    9.3 Permanent sealing techniques 585
    9.3.1 Welding 585
    9.3.2 Brazing and soldering 589
    9.3.3 Glass-to-metal and ceramic-to-metal seals 592
    9.3.4 Gluing 593
    9.4 Vacuum feedthroughs 594
    9.4.1 Electrical feedthroughs 594
    9.4.2 Motion feedthroughs 595
    9.4.3 Manipulator systems 599
    9.4.4 Liquid feedthroughs 599
    9.4.5 Optical windows 600
    9.5 Vacuum valves 600
    9.5.1 Sealing constructions 601
    9.5.2 Actuation mechanisms 604
    9.5.3 Configurations 605
    9.6 Fine control gas admission systems 608
    9.6.1 Needle valves 608
    9.6.2 Bakeable UHV precision dosing valves 609
    9.6.3 Permeation valves 610
    9.6.4 Mass flow controllers 612
    9.7 Bellows 613
    9.7.1 Corrugated bellows 613
    9.7.2 Diaphragm bellows 614

    Chapter 10 Material selection, lubrication, cleaning, working discipline 615
    10.1 General considerations on the selection of materials 615
    10.2 Vacuum properties of materials 616
    10.3 Surface outgassing 619
    10.4 Bulk outgassing 620
    10.5 Measurement of outgassing rate 621
    10.6 Permeability 623
    10.7 Vapour pressure of materials 626
    10.8 Decomposition of materials 631
    10.9 Summary of outgassing phenomena 633
    10.10 Specific selection criteria for metals and alloys 635
    10.11 Specific selection criteria for glasses 639
    10.12 Specific selection criteria for ceramics 640
    10.13 Specific selection criteria for synthetic materials 642
    10.14 Lubrication in vacuum 647
    10.14.1 Dry lubrication 648
    10.14.2 Wet lubrication 649
    10.15 Cleaning procedures 650
    10.15.1 Bulk outgassing 650
    10.15.2 The ‘physical’ surface 650
    10.15.3 Surface contamination 651
    10.15.4 Adsorbed gases and vapours 654
    10.16 General rules for working with vacuum systems 656
    10.16.1 What’s clean should be kept clean 656
    10.16.2 Pumping procedures 657
    10.16.3 Operating errors and malfunctions 658

    A Units and symbols 660
    B Tables and diagrams 664
    C ISO symbols for vacuum components 679
    D Properties and applications of materials in vacuum 684

    Answers to the exercises 690

    Worked solutions to the exercises 696

    Index 715
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In 2000 the Dutch Vacuum Society NEVAC published our "Basisboek Vacuümtechniek" (BBVT) for the benefit of the vacuum technology courses offered under the auspices of NEVAC. The content not only successfully supported lectures on vacuum technology at universities and colleges, but also provided a solution for the need of an extended Dutch-language reference work. Without exaggeration we may state that the book has since become a standard work in the fields of vacuum physics and technology. After two reprints in 2003 and 2008, it is justified to speak of a "Dutch bestseller". This was not unexpected, because the book contains a wealth of information presented in a clear and concise way.
As Dutch universities and high tech industries are more and more populated by PhD students in physics and chemistry from foreign countries and highly skilled foreign employees, the requirement of an English translation arose. In addition, there was a growing call from home and abroad to produce an English language book suited for world-wide distribution. Thus, the seed of an idea for a translation was born. The subsequent road map to the English version of our book was however a long and difficult one. Not only did the translation of such a specialist technical work give several expected and unexpected problems for Dutch authors, but, in addition, after more than a decennium the book needed a serious revision and update. For example, recent developments in vacuum pump design in answer to demanding physical problems, like within the semiconductor manufacturing industry, were missing. Furthermore, substantial updates were necessary in the field of (partial) pressure measurement, leak detection and cleaning and working discipline.
As a result, the English version 'Vacuum Science and Technology' (VST) presented here covers all the currently relevant vacuum topics and can really be classified as a contemporary book in the field of vacuum physics and technology.
In order to get an impression of how the book has been updated to current state of the art, a brief overview is given of the main innovations with respect to the Dutch version of 2000.
The large chapter 4 about pumps and pumping systems contains some major changes and significant innovations with respect to the Dutch book. First of all, we added a separate paragraph about compression. Furthermore, the chapter is extended with attention to the multi-stage Roots pump, which in the past decade has rapidly developed into a valuable alternative to the claw pump and is able to discharge to atmospheric pressure. In the paragraph about the claw pump, new insights are incorporated about the use of an integrated combination of Roots and claw stages. Concerning the screw pump, attention is paid to the tapered pitch as a solution to reduce the heat generated by isochoric compression. The section 'Molecular pumps' is extended with a paragraph on the combination 'Molecular drag pump (MDP) + side channel pump', consisting of a Holweck type molecular drag pump and a multiple stage miniature type of side channel blower. This pump combination appears to be able to discharge against atmospheric pressure. The required knowledge regarding the side channel blower is added as a separate paragraph to the section 'Dry rotary pumps'. The section 'Sputter-ion pumps' is supplemented with information on the so-called 'Galaxy' and 'StarCell' cathode structures to increase the pumping speed for noble gases.
Chapter 5, which deals with total pressure measurement, is extended with the quartz crystal friction pressure gauge and a Bourdon variant with electronic readout.
In the overview on ion sources in chapter 6, about partial pressure measurement and gas analysis, the axial and gas tight ion sources are added. The section on the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is provided with a short piece about a special focusing method whereby electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) can be identified and suppressed. Furthermore, the chapter includes a section on the autoresonant trap mass spectrometer (ARTMS). The expectation is that this residual gas analyzer (RGA) is going to be a serious competitor of the QMS in the pressure range 10-3 - 10-9 Pa. The setup of the section 'spectrum analysis' has changed substantially, while error rates get more attention.
The layout of chapter 8 about leak detection has been completely revised. As concerned to helium leak detectors, the emphasis has moved to the counterflow principle. The maximum achievable sensitivity of counterflow leak detectors has become comparable with that of main flow detectors in the past decade. This circumstance, added to the user-friendliness of counterflow detectors, has now meant that main flow detectors are no longer commercially available. Two inside-out leak detection methods are added, namely the atmosphere method and the bombing method. In a separate paragraph a quantitative analysis of the sensitivities of both methods and their usefulness in specific circumstances is discussed. The arsenal of available leak detection instruments has been extended with multigas sniffer systems (e.g. infrared leak detector), the hydrogen leak detector and the quartz window sensor.
In Chapter 10, about material selection, lubrication, cleaning and working discipline, the section 'Cleaning procedures' has been adapted to the changed views in this area and more focused on complete vacuum systems.
By keeping the overall framework of the Dutch book, VST can not only be considered as an excellent reference book, but is also a unique double-level textbook for both high and middle graduates. Text meant for high graduates is placed behind margin lines. Omitting this text gives a clearly structured textbook for middle graduates. Both with and without the margin texts the volume shows the desired internal coherence for the associated training level. Several chapters are provided with exercises, divided in two levels of difficulty. Exercises with/without asterisk are appropriate respectively for high and medium graduates. Short answers have been added at the end of the book. The "two books in one" format makes the work perfectly suited for self-study and (combined) high and medium level trainings. A multi-level training approach will be particularly useful in the common case of a group of course participants with a wide range of (academic and medium) preparation and/or experience.

After publication of the 1st edition hardcover in february 2016, the E-book version has been supplemented or amended on some points. A substantial update is the inclusion of all fully worked solutions to the chapter exercises. This to further enhance the book's quality as an excellent course manual with his unique integrated two-level setup.
A noteworthy addition to chapter 5 'Pressure measurement' concerns a new type of ionization gauge, based on the Bayard-Alpert design: the so-called "Belt Bent-Beam" (3B) gauge. A brand new concept, in terms of objective akin to the classic extractor gauge: Keep the gauge ion collector as far away as possible from all radiation and desorption effects. The X-ray limit of the 3B-gauge is in the low 10^-12 Pa range. This extremely low limit is achieved through a combination of material choice (low heat radiation and outgassing) and a smart geometry (low flux of soft X-rays and ESD in the collector area).
Furthermore, the number of pressure zones below 1 atmosphere has been expanded from four to five. In more recent vacuum literature and advertisements from vacuum manufacturers, for the sake of distinction and convenience, in line with the well-known ultra-high vacuum pressure range 10^-4 - 10^-7 Pa, the term "extreme high vacuum" (XHV) is increasingly used to denote the pressure range below 10^-7 Pa. We've the whole book conformed to this additional vacuum terminology; see figure 5.1.

The authors would like to respond to criticism (comments) by some official reviewers and respondents to the 1st edition regarding the lack of literature references in the book. On this point they hold a clear opinion: although their decision to not include references in VST may perhaps slightly affect its value as a reference book, they nevertheless believe this disadvantage does not outweigh the advantage of a textbook where the flow of reading is not disturbed by excessive well-intended references. Furthermore, in the authors' opinion online facilities meanwhile guarantee an inexhaustible, ever-renewing and growing source of information for those who want to "dig deeper" into a specific subject. For example, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia.org offers up-to-date information and literature references on nearly all vacuum topics. Viewed in this light, it seems reasonable to argue that including references becomes less essential.
Attentive readers will also note that source references are missing for a lot of the graphs, drawings and illustrations. For clarity and as accountability, it's therefore worthwhile mentioning that in more than half of all figures the authors themselves acted as sources with measurements, graphs, etc. obtained in their own research. Sources of approximately
40% of the figures are unfortunately no longer traceable. They were initially used in our earlier Dutch books and lecture notes and originate from scientific papers, books and catalogs of around the mid-last century when vacuum technology was still being practiced with scientific ambitions by a relatively small "inner circle" of fellow scientists. Undoubtedly the use of these figures at that time would informally be agreed, but written agreements have unfortunately been lost or even may never have been made. All more recent figures (about 10%) are provided with a source acknowledgement.

The authors are indebted to Dick van Langeveld for his valuable contribution to the new set-up of the section on spectrum analysis in chapter 6, useful discussions on various relevant topics (piezo electricity, equations of motion of the quartz crystal in a quartz crystal friction gauge) and initiating useful contacts of various kinds. Our thanks also goes to Dr Masahiro Hirata (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) for useful email correspondence concerning the physics of a quartz crystal friction gauge. We express our gratitude to Harold Zandvliet (University Twente, Enschede, NL) for critically reading section 8.9.2 dealing with the hydrogen leak detector. His comments have contributed significantly to our understanding of the physics of this detector. We are very grateful to Norbert Koster (TNO Science and Industry, Semiconductor Equipment, Delft, NL) and Peter van der Heijden (VDL Enabling Technologies Group, Eindhoven, NL) for their contributions to the update of the section on cleaning in chapter 10. For incorporating the ceramic bead blasting cleaning technique in chapter 10, the information in the prospectus 'Ceramic bead blasting of stainless steel' from Vecom, a company based in Maassluis, NL, was very helpful to us. We wish in addition express our gratitude to several representatives of vacuum companies for their permission to reproduce many illustrations and/or their substantial comments on a number of relevant parts of the text: Dr Falk Braunschweig, Mark Fierloos and Ron van Vossen (Alcatel Vacuum Technology), Dr Sherm Rutherford (Duniway Stockroom Corporation), Harry Nagel and David Schijve (Edwards Vacuum), Sjors Kruidenberg (Elmo-Rietschle), Dr Armin Conrad and Pieter Heidema (Pfeiffer Vacuum), Dipl-Phys Werner Große Bley (Inficon), Dirk Pootjes (Demaco - Granville Pillips), Joost Hommel (Paroscientific) and Sam Kishikawa (XHV products - Tokyo Electronics Japan).
Gratitude is also expressed to those who have contributed to the content without specific reference or acknowledgement.
Special thanks are due to Sam Jimenez for his excellent book review. He really has managed, using his own words, "To aim for language that is grammatically 100% correct but which sounds slightly international, which is what I tend to find when I read published literature from non-native speakers. It could always be rewritten in more depth to make it sound like it was completely written by a British English speaker but I think that it would take away from the fact that it is a collection of Dutch expertise". This wise view and all his help as a reviewer have undoubtedly contributed to the confidence of the authors in their aim to come to a valuable English translation of their Dutch book.

'Vacuum Science and Technology' is a joint publication of 'The High Tech Institute' (professional education in high tech and leadership) and 'Settels Savenije Van Amelsvoort' (innovation projects), Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The authors wish to express their appreciation to John Settels and René Raaijmakers, the managing directors, for making this possible.

The Dutch Vacuum Society NEVAC awards the book her quality mark 'Under the auspices of NEVAC', thus giving appropriate content to one of its key objectives, namely the dissemination of knowledge in the field of vacuum science and technology.

Peize (NL) Bert Suurmeijer
Harmelen (NL) Theo Mulder
Kockengen (NL) Jan Verhoeven

Autumn 2015, updated January 2023 ×